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Facts and statistics about osteoporosis and its impact


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2. Melton LJ, 3rd, Atkinson EJ, O'Connor MK, et al. (1998) Bone density and fracture risk in men. J Bone Miner Res 13:1915.

3. Melton LJ, 3rd, Chrischilles EA, Cooper C, et al. (1992) Perspective. How many women have osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 7:1005.

4. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, et al. (2000) Long-term risk of osteoporotic fracture in Malmo. Osteoporos Int 11:669.

5. Randell A, Sambrook PN, Nguyen TV, et al. (1995) Direct clinical and welfare costs of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men and women. Osteoporos Int 5:427.

6. Owen RA, Melton LJ, 3rd, Johnson KA, et al. (1982) Incidence of Colles' fracture in a North American community. Am J Public Health 72:605.

7. Melton LJ, 3rd, Crowson CS and O'Fallon WM (1999) Fracture incidence in Olmsted County, Minnesota: comparison of urban with rural rates and changes in urban rates over time. Osteoporos Int 9:29.

8. Klotzbuecher CM, Ross PD, Landsman PB, et al. (2000) Patients with prior fractures have an increased risk of future fractures: a summary of the literature and statistical synthesis. J Bone Miner Res 15:721.

9. Gullberg B, Johnell O and Kanis JA (1997) World-wide projections for hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 7:407.

10. Kanis JA (2002) Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. Lancet 359:1929.

11. Cummings SR and Melton LJ (2002) Epidemiology and outcomes of osteoporotic fractures. Lancet 359:1761.

12. Kanis JA, Johnell O, De Laet C, et al. (2004) A meta-analysis of previous fracture and subsequent fracture risk. Bone 35:375.

13. Kanis JA, Delmas P, Burckhardt P, et al. (1997) Guidelines for diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. The European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Bone Disease. Osteoporos Int 7:390.

14. IOF (2000) How fragile is her future?

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17. Merrill RM, Weed DL and Feuer EJ (1997) The lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer in white and black men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6:763.

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19. Hasserius R, Karlsson MK, Nilsson BE, et al. (2003) Prevalent vertebral deformities predict increased mortality and increased fracture rate in both men and women: a 10-year population-based study of 598 individuals from the Swedish cohort in the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int 14:61.

20. Kanis JA, Oden A, Johnell O, et al. (2003) The components of excess mortality after hip fracture. Bone 32:468.

21. Trombetti A, Herrmann F, Hoffmeyer P, et al. (2002) Survival and potential years of life lost after hip fracture in men and age-matched women. Osteoporos Int 13:731.

22. Haentjens P, Johnell O, Kanis JA, et al. (2004) Evidence from data searches and life-table analyses for gender-related differences in absolute risk of hip fracture after Colles' or spine fracture: Colles' fracture as an early and sensitive marker of skeletal fragility in white men. J Bone Miner Res 19:1933.

23. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, et al. (2004) Epidemiology of osteoporosis and fracture in men. Calcif Tissue Int 75:90.

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25. Jordan KM and Cooper C (2002) Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 16:795.

26. Cooper C, Campion G and Melton LJ, 3rd (1992) Hip fractures in the elderly: a world-wide projection. Osteoporos Int 2:285.

27. Keene GS, Parker MJ and Pryor GA (1993) Mortality and morbidity after hip fractures. BMJ 307:1248.

28. Autier P, Haentjens P, Bentin J, et al. (2000) Costs induced by hip fractures: a prospective controlled study in Belgium. Belgian Hip Fracture Study Group. Osteoporos Int 11:373.

29. Cree M, Soskolne CL, Belseck E, et al. (2000) Mortality and institutionalization following hip fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:283.

30. Kiebzak GM, Beinart GA, Perser K, et al. (2002) Undertreatment of osteoporosis in men with hip fracture. Arch Intern Med 162:2217.

31. Reginster JY, Gillet P, Ben Sedrine W, et al. (1999) Direct costs of hip fractures in patients over 60 years of age in Belgium. Pharmacoeconomics 15:507.

32. Cummings SR, Black DM and Rubin SM (1989) Lifetime risks of hip, Colles', or vertebral fracture and coronary heart disease among white postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 149:2445.

33. Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, Jacobsen SJ, et al. (1993) Population-based study of survival after osteoporotic fractures. Am J Epidemiol 137:1001.

34. Leibson CL, Tosteson AN, Gabriel SE, et al. (2002) Mortality, disability, and nursing home use for persons with and without hip fracture: a population-based study. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:1644.

35. Magaziner J, Lydick E, Hawkes W, et al. (1997) Excess mortality attributable to hip fracture in white women aged 70 years and older. Am J Public Health 87:1630.

36. Magaziner J, Simonsick EM, Kashner TM, et al. (1990) Predictors of functional recovery one year following hospital discharge for hip fracture: a prospective study. J Gerontol 45:M101.

37. Riggs BL and Melton LJ, 3rd (1995) The worldwide problem of osteoporosis: insights afforded by epidemiology. Bone 17:505S.

38. Kannus P, Parkkari J, Niemi S and Palvanen M (1996) Epidemiology of osteoporotic ankle fractures in elderly persons in Finland. Ann Intern Med 125:975.

39. Kanis JA, Johnell O, De Laet C, et al. (2002) International variations in hip fracture probabilities: implications for risk assessment. J Bone Miner Res 17:1237.

40. Lindsay R, Silverman SL, Cooper C, et al. (2001) Risk of new vertebral fracture in the year following a fracture. JAMA 285:320.

41. Ross PD, Davis JW, Epstein RS and Wasnich RD (1991) Pre-existing fractures and bone mass predict vertebral fracture incidence in women. Ann Intern Med 114:919.

42. Black DM, Arden NK, Palermo L, et al. (1999) Prevalent vertebral deformities predict hip fractures and new vertebral deformities but not wrist fractures. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 14:821.

43. Kaptoge S, Armbrecht G, Felsenberg D, et al. (2004) When should the doctor order a spine X-ray? Identifying vertebral fractures for osteoporosis care: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS). J Bone Miner Res 19:1982.

44. Nevitt MC, Ettinger B, Black DM, et al. (1998) The association of radiographically detected vertebral fractures with back pain and function: a prospective study. Ann Intern Med 128:793.

45. Lips P, Cooper C, Agnusdei D, et al. (1999) Quality of life in patients with vertebral fractures: validation of the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO). Working Party for Quality of Life of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 10:150.

46. Pluijm SM, Dik MG, Jonker C, et al. (2002) Effects of gender and age on the association of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 with bone mineral density, bone turnover and the risk of fractures in older people. Osteoporos Int 13:701.

47. Gold DT (2001) The nonskeletal consequences of osteoporotic fractures. Psychologic and social outcomes. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 27:255.

48. Robbins J, Hirsch C, Whitmer R, et al. (2001) The association of bone mineral density and depression in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc 49:732.

49. Lyles KW (2001) Osteoporosis and depression: shedding more light upon a complex relationship. J Am Geriatr Soc 49:827.

50. Tosteson AN, Gabriel SE, Grove MR, et al. (2001) Impact of hip and vertebral fractures on quality-adjusted life years. Osteoporos Int 12:1042.

51. Hall SE, Criddle RA, Comito TL and Prince RL (1999) A case-control study of quality of life and functional impairment in women with long-standing vertebral osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporos Int 9:508.

52. Adachi JD, Ioannidis G, Olszynski WP, et al. (2002) The impact of incident vertebral and non-vertebral fractures on health related quality of life in postmenopausal women. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 3:11.

53. Johnell O, Oden A, Caulin F and Kanis JA (2001) Acute and long-term increase in fracture risk after hospitalization for vertebral fracture. Osteoporos Int 12:207.

54. Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM and Melton LJ, 3rd (1992) Incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures: a population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1985-1989. J Bone Miner Res 7:221.

55. Delmas PD, van de Langerijt L, Watts NB, et al. (2005) Underdiagnosis of vertebral fractures is a worldwide problem: the IMPACT study. J Bone Miner Res 20:557.

56. O'Neill TW, Felsenberg D, Varlow J, et al. (1996) The prevalence of vertebral deformity in european men and women: the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 11:1010.

57. Davies KM, Stegman MR, Heaney RP and Recker RR (1996) Prevalence and severity of vertebral fracture: the Saunders County Bone Quality Study. Osteoporos Int 6:160.

58. Siris ES, Chen YT, Abbott TA, et al. (2004) Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fractures. Arch Intern Med 164:1108.

59. Wainwright SA, Marshall LM, Ensrud KE, et al. (2005) Hip fracture in women without osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:2787.

60. Pocock NA, Eisman JA, Hopper JL, et al. (1987) Genetic determinants of bone mass in adults. A twin study. J Clin Invest 80:706.

61. Seeman E, Hopper JL, Bach LA, et al. (1989) Reduced bone mass in daughters of women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 320:554.

62. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, et al. (2004) A family history of fracture and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Bone 35:1029.

63. Cooper C, Cawley M, Bhalla A, et al. (1995) Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. J Bone Miner Res 10:940.

64. Duppe H, Cooper C, Gardsell P and Johnell O (1997) The relationship between childhood growth, bone mass, and muscle strength in male and female adolescents. Calcif Tissue Int 60:405.

65. Cooper C, Fall C, Egger P, et al. (1997) Growth in infancy and bone mass in later life. Ann Rheum Dis 56:17.

66. Nguyen TV, Kelly PJ, Sambrook PN, et al. (1994) Lifestyle factors and bone density in the elderly: implications for osteoporosis prevention. J Bone Miner Res 9:1339.

67. Ward KD and Klesges RC (2001) A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int 68:259.

68. Law MR and Hackshaw AK (1997) A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture: recognition of a major effect. BMJ 315:841.

69. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, et al. (2005) Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 16:155.

70. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Johnell O, et al. (2005) Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture. Osteoporos Int 16:737.

71. Felson DT, Kiel DP, Anderson JJ and Kannel WB (1988) Alcohol consumption and hip fractures: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 128:1102.

72. Reid IR (1997) Glucocorticoid osteoporosis--mechanisms and management. Eur J Endocrinol 137:209.

73. Adachi JD (1997) Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Am J Med Sci 313:41.

74. Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Lipschutz R and Cummings SR (1997) Weight change and fractures in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Arch Intern Med 157:857.

75. Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Stone KL, et al. (2003) Intentional and unintentional weight loss increase bone loss and hip fracture risk in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:1740.

76. Farmer ME, Harris T, Madans JH, et al. (1989) Anthropometric indicators and hip fracture. The NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. J Am Geriatr Soc 37:9.

77. Bainbridge KE, Sowers M, Lin X and Harlow SD (2004) Risk factors for low bone mineral density and the 6-year rate of bone loss among premenopausal and perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 15:439.

78. Warren MP (1999) Health issues for women athletes: exercise-induced amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:1892.

79. Tinetti ME (2003) Clinical practice. Preventing falls in elderly persons. N Engl J Med 348:42.

80. Nevitt MC, Cummings SR and Hudes ES (1991) Risk factors for injurious falls: a prospective study. J Gerontol 46:M164.

81. Dargent-Molina P, Favier F, Grandjean H, et al. (1996) Fall-related factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS prospective study. Lancet 348:145.

82. Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. (1995) Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 332:767.

83. Glick NR, Fischer MH, Heisey DM, et al. (2005) Epidemiology of fractures in people with severe and profound developmental disabilities. Osteoporos Int 16:389.

84. Delmas PD, Rizzoli R, Cooper C and Reginster JY (2005) Treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis is worthwhile. The position of the International Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporos Int 16:1.

85. Kanis JA, Borgstrom F, Zethraeus N, et al. (2005) Intervention thresholds for osteoporosis in the UK. Bone 36:22.

86. Lindsay R, Burge RT and Strauss DM (2005) One year outcomes and costs following a vertebral fracture. Osteoporos Int 16:78.

87. Lindsay R, Pack S and Li Z (2005) Longitudinal progression of fracture prevalence through a population of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 16:306.

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89. Siris ES, Miller PD, Barrett-Connor E, et al. (2001) Identification and fracture outcomes of undiagnosed low bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. JAMA 286:2815.

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93. Bass SL, Saxon L, Daly RM, et al. (2002) The effect of mechanical loading on the size and shape of bone in pre-, peri-, and postpubertal girls: a study in tennis players. J Bone Miner Res 17:2274.

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96. Janz KF, Burns TL, Levy SM, et al. (2004) Everyday activity predicts bone geometry in children: the iowa bone development study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1124.

97. Gregg EW, Cauley JA, Seeley DG, et al. (1998) Physical activity and osteoporotic fracture risk in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 129:81.

98. Feskanich D, Willett W and Colditz G (2002) Walking and leisure-time activity and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. JAMA 288:2300.

99. Brooke-Wavell K, Jones PR, Hardman AE, et al. (2001) Commencing, continuing and stopping brisk walking: effects on bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound of bone and markers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 12:581.

100. Bonaiuti D, Shea B, Iovine R, et al. (2002) Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD000333.

101. Karlsson M (2004) Has exercise an antifracture efficacy in women? Scand J Med Sci Sports 14:2.

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105. Karlsson M (2002) Does exercise reduce the burden of fractures? A review. Acta Orthop Scand 73:691.

106. Gregg EW, Pereira MA and Caspersen CJ (2000) Physical activity, falls, and fractures among older adults: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:883.

107. Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Kannus P, et al. (2000) Physical activity and osteoporotic hip fracture risk in men. Arch Intern Med 160:705.

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109. Sinaki M and Lynn SG (2002) Reducing the risk of falls through proprioceptive dynamic posture training in osteoporotic women with kyphotic posturing: a randomized pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 81:241.

110. Sinaki M, Itoi E, Wahner HW, et al. (2002) Stronger back muscles reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures: a prospective 10 year follow-up of postmenopausal women. Bone 30:836.

111. Sinaki M (2003) Critical appraisal of physical rehabilitation measures after osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Osteoporos Int 14:773.

112. Preisinger E, Alacamlioglu Y, Pils K, et al. (1995) Therapeutic exercise in the prevention of bone loss. A controlled trial with women after menopause. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 74:120.

113. Hartard M, Haber P, Ilieva D, et al. (1996) Systematic strength training as a model of therapeutic intervention. A controlled trial in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 75:21.

114. Kemmler W, Lauber D, Weineck J, et al. (2004) Benefits of 2 years of intense exercise on bone density, physical fitness, and blood lipids in early postmenopausal osteopenic women: results of the Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS). Arch Intern Med 164:1084.

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120. Specker B and Binkley T (2003) Randomized trial of physical activity and calcium supplementation on bone mineral content in 3- to 5-year-old children. J Bone Miner Res 18:885.

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123. Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, et al. (2002) Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int 13:257.

124. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA and Dallal GE (1997) Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337:670.

125. New SA (2004) Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass? Osteoporos Int 15:679.

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